Balancing a multistage vehicle number plate production line using effective cycle time model

  • Stephen C. Nwanya University of Nigeria Nsukka
  • Celestine N. Achebe University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Abstract views: 322 , PDF downloads: 8565
Keywords: Effective cycle time, Lean philosophy, Line balancing, Value stream mapping, Work content time


Shortest product cycle time is a key criterion for job sequencing and measuring competitiveness among entrepreneurial-based firms. Now, the long waiting time of job orders constitutes a deterministic production line problem in vehicle number plate production plants in Nigeria. Case studies were conducted on those plants, confidentially identified in this paper as A, B, C, and D. Delays caused by non-value-adding work processes are major culprits among other contributors to the long queues at these plants. The value stream mapping technique was applied to identify non-value adding activities before the production line was balanced using an effective cycle time model. The index cases to a balanced line, as shown in the results, are increases in process rate by 41 %, 59 %, 42 %, and 71 % for  A, B, C, and D, respectively, and overall line efficiency. Next, the system capacities correspondingly increased with the elimination of wastages.  These increments imply that bottleneck activities have been minimized, and we have a balanced production line. The devised solution procedure is reliable and recommended to other line manufacturing concerns that experience delays and bottleneck problems.


Download data is not yet available.


I. Tirkel, “The effectiveness of variability reduction in decreasing wafer fabrication cycle time,” in 2013 Winter Simulations Conference (WSC), Dec. 2013, pp. 3796–3805.

C. Thompson, “Virginia DMV uses simulation to reduce customer wait times.” 2018.

C. Roser, “How to Measure Cycle Times – Part 1.” 2015.

S. C. Nwanya, C. N. Achebe, O. O. Ajayi, and C. A. Mgbemene, “Process variability analysis in make-to-order production systems,” Cogent Eng., vol. 3, no. 1, p. 1269382, Dec. 2016.

J. O. McClains and L. J. Thomas, Operations Management: production of goods and services. 2nd Edition. New delhi: Prentice-Hall, 2002.

S. Sridhar and B. Anandaraj, “Balancing of production line in a bearing industry to improve productivity,” Hilltop Rev., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 99–114, 2017.

A. Shinde and D. More, “Production Line Balancing: Is it a Balanced Act?,” Vikalpa J. Decis. Makers, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 242–247, Jun. 2015.

M. Kamal and J. L. Martinez Lastr, “Assembly Line Balancing and Sequencing,” in Assembly Line - Theory and Practice, Waldemar Grzechca, IntechOpen, 2011.

C. Kusoncum, K. Sethanan, E. P. Putri, and W. Neungmacha, “Simulation-based approaches for processes improvement of a sugar mill yard management system: A case study of the sugar industry in the central region of Thailand,” Eng. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 320–331, 2018.

D. D. Sheu and J.-Y. Chen, “Line balance analyses for system assembly lines in an electronic plant,” Prod. Plan. Control, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 256–264, Apr. 2008.

N. N. Mishan and M. M. Tap, “Increasing line efficiency by using timestudy and line balancing in a food manufacturing company,” J. Mek., vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 32–43, 2015.

N. T. Lam, L. M. Toi, V. T. T. Tuyen, and D. N. Hien, “Lean Line Balancing for an Electronics Assembly Line,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 40, pp. 437–442, 2016.

I. Tahir, M. Jahanzaib, A. Wasim, and S. Hussain, “An integrated approach of Value Stream Mapping and simulation for process improvements,” J. Manuf. Technol. Manag., vol. 20, no. 2, 20115.

M. N. Morshed and K. S. Palash, “Assembly line balancing to improve productivity using work sharing method in apparel industry,” Glob. J. Res. Eng., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 39–47, 2014.

W. Grzechca and L. R. Foulds, “The Assembly Line Balancing Problem with Task Splitting: A Case Study,” IFAC-PapersOnLine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 2002–2008, 2015.

M. E. Nenni, L. Giustiniano, and L. Pirolo, “Improvement of Manufacturing Operations through a Lean Management Approach: A Case Study in the Pharmaceutical Industry,” Int. J. Eng. Bus. Manag., vol. 6, p. 24, Jan. 2014.

A. C. Tsigkas, The Lean Enterprise: from the mass economy to the economy of one. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.

R. J. MacKay and S. H. Steiner, “Strategies for variability reduction,” Qual. Eng., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 125–136, Sep. 1997.

V. N. Nair et al., “Taguchi’s Parameter Design: A Panel Discussion,” Technometrics, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 127–161, May 1992.

W. J. Hopp and M. L. Spearman, Factory physics. Waveland Press, 2011.

M. Katombe and E. Munapo, “The quest for process operations variability reduction in manufacturing firms in South Africa,” South African J. Econ. Manag. Sci., vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 448–466, 2016.

M. Parvez, F. Amin, and F. Akter, “Line Balancing Techniques To Improve Productivity Using Work Sharing Method,” J. Res. Method Educ., vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 7–14, 2019.

M. Mengistu, “Line Balancing Techniques for Productivity Improvement,” Int. J. Mech. Ind. Technol., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 89–104, 2019.

A. R. Rahani and M. Al-Ashraf, “Production Flow Analysis through Value Stream Mapping: A Lean Manufacturing Process Case Study,” Procedia Eng., vol. 41, pp. 1727–1734, 2012.

U. K. Teichgräber and M. de Bucourt, “Applying value stream mapping techniques to eliminate non-value-added waste for the procurement of endovascular stents,” Eur. J. Radiol., vol. 81, no. 1, pp. e47–e52, Jan. 2012.

G. T. . S. Rishi and M. Pramod, “Process improvement in an Industry using Value Stream Mapping Approach,” Int. J. Recent Eng. Res. Dev., vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 29–34, 2018..

L. Koskela, An exploration towards a production theory and its application to construction. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, 2000.

E. A. Elsayed and T. O. Boucher, Analysis and control of production systems. Prentice Hall, 1994.

PlumX Metrics

How to Cite
S. C. Nwanya and C. N. Achebe, “Balancing a multistage vehicle number plate production line using effective cycle time model”, j. sist. manaj. ind., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-12, Jul. 2020.
Research Article