Work from home study: mental workload, gender, and calorie needs

  • Fatin Saffanah Didin Insitut Teknologi Sumatera
  • Belia Perwitasari Maharani Universitas Mercu Buana
  • Intan Mardiono Institut Teknologi Sumatera
Abstract views: 631 , PDF downloads: 4766
Keywords: RSME, Calorie needs, Gender, WFH


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has changed how to work, learn, socialize, and many business sectors applied for the Work from Home (WFH) rule. This research aims to measure workers' mental and physical workload while working from home use Rating Scale Mental Effort and the physical workload was using calorie needs. The calculation for calories needs using physical condition of participant and food consumption in a day with Lifesum Application. Participants consisted of 40 males and 40 females. The result shows that the value of mental workloads on males and females with no different significance. But the average amount of female's work and mental workload effort is higher by 9.98 than men. More than 60% of male and female workers working from home belong to the category of heavy work seen from their calorie needs. According to the number of calories remaining, more than 70% of male and female workers have an excess amount of calories that is not suitable for worker health. This study suggested that employees need to improve the work system online to reach a healthy working system both mentally and physically. The relevant company can use the suggestion of this paper result in providing workload to employees during WFH.


Download data is not yet available.


World Health Organization, “Critical preparedness, readiness and response actions for COVID-19: interim guidance, March 22, 2020,” World Health Organization, 2020. Available:

National Safety Council, “Depression and the workplace: a progress report,” National Safety Council, 2020. Available:

W. M. Banjar and M. K. Alaqeel, “Healthcare worker’s mental health dilemma during COVID-19 pandemic: A reflection on the KSA experience,” J. Taibah Univ. Med. Sci., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 255–257, Aug. 2020, doi:

H. D. Windarwati et al., “Stressor, coping mechanism, and motivation among health care workers in dealing with stress due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia,” Asian J. Psychiatr., vol. 56, pp. 1–3, Feb. 2021, doi:

D. Majumdar and W. Selvamurthy, “Perspectives of Ergonomics Research at Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences in India,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 215–218, 2000, doi:

K. Shiozawa et al., “Gender differences in eating behavior and masticatory performance: An analysis of the Three-Factor-Eating Questionnaire and its association with body mass index in healthy subjects,” J. Oral Biosci., vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 357–362, 2020, doi:

S. Bostan, M. Akbolat, A. Kaya, M. Ozata, and D. Gunes, “Assessments of Anxiety Levels and Working Conditions of Health Employees Working in COVİD-19 Pandemic Hospitals,” Electron. J. Gen. Med., vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1–5, May 2020, doi:

Human Resources Director, “Will COVID-19 drastically change the way we work?,” 2020.

M. Frankenhaeuser, “The Psychophysiology of Workload, Stress, and Health: Comparison Between the Sexes,” Ann. Behav. Med., vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 197–204, Jan. 1991, doi:

N. Meshkati, “Heart Rate Variability and Mental Workload Assessment,” in Human Mental Workload, vol. 52, P. A. Hancock and N. B. T.-A. in P. Meshkati, Eds. North-Holland, 1988, pp. 101–115. doi:

J. Xu and E. Montague, “Psychophysiology of the passive user: Exploring the effect of technological conditions and personality traits,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 505–512, 2012, doi:

H. Iridiastadi and Yassierli, Ergonomi suatu pengantar. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosdakarya. 2014. Available:

A. Magliacano, S. Fiorenza, A. Estraneo, and L. Trojano, “Eye blink rate increases as a function of cognitive load during an auditory oddball paradigm,” Neurosci. Lett., vol. 736, p. 135293, 2020, doi:

G. B. Reid and T. E. Nygren, “The Subjective Workload Assessment Technique: A Scaling Procedure for Measuring Mental Workload,” in Human Mental Workload, North-Holland Amsterdam, 1988, pp. 185–218. doi:

A. Widyanti, A. Johnson, and D. de Waard, “Adaptation of the Rating Scale Mental Effort (RSME) for use in Indonesia,” Int. J. Ind. Ergon., vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 70–76, Jan. 2013, doi:

A. Widyanti, A. Johnson, and D. de Waard, “Pengukuran beban kerja mental dalam searching task dengan metode rating scale mental effort (RSME),” J@ Ti Undip, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2010. Available:

S. G. Hart, “Nasa-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX); 20 Years Later,” Proc. Hum. Factors Ergon. Soc. Annu. Meet., vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 904–908, Oct. 2006, doi:

M. Sheraton, N. Deo, T. Dutt, S. Surani, D. Hall-Flavin, and R. Kashyap, “Psychological effects of the COVID 19 pandemic on healthcare workers globally: A systematic review,” Psychiatry Res., vol. 292, p. 113360, 2020, doi:

S. Pappa, V. Ntella, T. Giannakas, V. G. Giannakoulis, E. Papoutsi, and P. Katsaounou, “Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Brain. Behav. Immun., vol. 88, pp. 901–907, 2020, doi:

H. Toiba, “Food consumption and shopping pattern change in Indonesian urban consumers: A cluster approach,” 2016. Available:

S. Min, X. Wang, and X. Yu, “Does dietary knowledge affect household food waste in the developing economy of China?,” Food Policy, vol. 98, p. 101896, 2021, doi:

B. Arifin, N. A. Achsani, D. Martianto, L. K. Sari, and A. H. Firdaus, “Modeling the future of Indonesian food consumption,” 2018. Available:

I. Etikan, “Sampling and Sampling Methods,” Biometrics Biostat. Int. J., vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 215–217, May 2017, doi:

B. Fista et al., “Review of Cognitive Ergonomic Measurement Tools,” IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., vol. 598, no. 1, pp. 1–9, Sep. 2019, doi:

B. M. Appelhans et al., “Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 122, pp. 129–133, 2013, doi:

A. M. Roza and H. M. Shizgal, “The Harris Benedict equation reevaluated: resting energy requirements and the body cell mass,” Am. J. Clin. Nutr., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 168–182, Jul. 1984, doi:

J. H. Gallaway and A. Bernasek, “Gender and Informal Sector Employment in Indonesia,” J. Econ. Issues, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 313–321, Jun. 2002, doi:

J. Billings, B. C. F. Ching, V. Gkofa, T. Greene, and M. Bloomfield, “Healthcare Workers’ Experiences of Working on the Frontline and Views About Support During COVID-19 and Previous Pandemics: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Meta-Synthesis,” Res. Sq., pp. 1–30, 2021, doi:

S. Yuan et al., “Comparison of the Indicators of Psychological Stress in the Population of Hubei Province and Non-Endemic Provinces in China During Two Weeks During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in February 2020,” Med. Sci. Monit., vol. 26, pp. 1–10, Apr. 2020, doi:

N. M. Petry, “A Comparison of Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adult Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers,” Gerontologist, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 92–99, Feb. 2002, doi:

D. Benton and H. A. Young, “Reducing Calorie Intake May Not Help You Lose Body Weight,” Perspect. Psychol. Sci., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 703–714, Sep. 2017, doi:

S. Camacho and A. Ruppel, “Is the calorie concept a real solution to the obesity epidemic?,” Glob. Health Action, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 1289650, Jan. 2017, doi:

Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 45 Tahun 2015 tentang Penyelenggaraan Program Jaminan Pensiun. 2015.

I. R. Dias et al., “Does calorie restriction improve cognition?,” IBRO Reports, vol. 9, pp. 37–45, 2020, doi:

PlumX Metrics

How to Cite
F. S. Didin, B. P. Maharani, and I. Mardiono, “Work from home study: mental workload, gender, and calorie needs”, j. sist. manaj. ind., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-7, Jun. 2021.